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专家思维- 第二部分

创建于: 2014-08-12 15:48:21          

在上篇博客中,我们探讨了一些当你开始备考CCIE路由和交换认证时需要考虑的因素。總結上一篇博客,第一部分讨论了大量關於考點和备考专家级认证的相关挑战,同时提到我們應該注意一些相關的考試规则。

 

在第二部分中,我将跟大家分享我对于成功的考生备考思维的一些想法。本文的目的是讨论并提供可适用于任何考生的一些总的建议 - 而不只是针对性的备考建议。

 

 

知道哪些知识你还没有掌握!

在我的Cisco Live演讲中,我经常会在八个小时里的重覆这句话- “知道哪些知识你还没有掌握”。理由很简单:这句话在2006-2008年间极大地帮助了我自己的CCIE学习!我不知道这句话最早是谁说的,但当然不是我发明的。

 

如果你在备考CCIE,你可能有技术背景并掌握一些考点,你只需要少量的复习即可。参考以下图表,在第一天(开始备考时),那个”What you know你已经掌握的知识” 的绿色条表示了考试内容的一小部分。另外,也会有一些你已经听说过的考点,你也知道你需要如何去学习掌握。这就是红色的“What you know that you don't know你知道哪些知识你还没有掌握” 的长条表示的部分。最后,还有一些你没有听说过也不知道如何去准备的考点。这就是蓝色条所表示的"what you don't know you don't know你不清楚哪些知识你还没有掌握",而这个蓝色条也是考试内容剩余的部分。

 

 

当然,备考的目标就是把的绿色条部分最大化,并尽量减少蓝色条和红色条。你是否应该以在考试那天掌握100%考试内容为目标,把整个长条全部变为绿色?那当然好,你应该有意愿并尽可能的通过许多不同的资源对考试中可能出现的知识点进行学习。然而这是否现实呢?掌握100%考点?当然不是!另外,你是否真的期望专家会知道的所有协议中的每一個比特和字节?这显然不可能!你只需要达到最低分数线以通过考试- 因此没有必要100%掌握所有考点。

 

正如在第1部分中讨论的,专家不可能知道一切,而是能够有效地实施解决方案并快速利用现有资源解决问题。因此如图所示即使仍存在少量蓝色条和红色条,你也可能通过考试。

 

这是一个当你建立备考计划,准备学习资源时需要考虑的重要因素。你首先需要评估你目前的知识,并尝试找出这三个不同颜色的长条。你可以简单地把考点归类到以上三个部分来进行评估。

 

备考时,重点学习归类为红色条部分的考点 (“What you know that you don't know你知道哪些知识你还没有掌握”)你第一个的学习目的应该是尽快把它们变为绿色条部分 (”What you know你已经掌握的知识”)。在你继续学习的过程中,你所不知道的考点将会逐步向最上方的两条进行移动。

 

这种自我评估工作,如果是做诚实和定时,可以帮助识别你的优势和劣势。,持续的进行评估将帮助你看到你的进步以及你努力的成果。

 

来认识一下你最好的新朋友:Cisco文档!

 

CCIE R&S考纲所列出的考点清单比以往更细致,结构性更强,但这不意味着这是一个详尽的清单,没有明确列出的一些考点可能仍然会出现在考试中。

 

此外,在你制定学习计划的过程中,你可能会发现有无数的协议功能,细节或选项,可以进行更详细的研究。

 

鉴于这一切,你应该多深入地学习每个考点?

 

在回答这个问题时,你必须知道:考生可以在实验考试中使用思科文档。考生不应该依赖它来解答问题,因为时间是有限的。但对于那些需要一些不寻常的选择或配置,考生应该知道在哪里可以在文档里快速找到一个可靠的信息。

 

正确的学习和使用文档必定帮助你通往考试的成功。通过文档,无论是在考试中,或是在你的日常工作中,你能够快速的找到支持文件并有准备的去寻找未知信息,同时增强自己的信心。

 

下面是Cisco文档的一些链接,,考生可以在实验考试中使用:

 

 

你的学习计划是怎样的?

 

如果你想要一个结构化的学习计划,你可能需要在计划中添加并跟踪以下的两个指标。

 

第一个指标是为每个考点排列优先级别。虽然考纲里列出的主要考点的权重可以帮助制定优先级,你仍然需要通过自己的判断来确定分支考点的优先级。

 

第二个指标是知识“深度”(或“认知程度”),也就是你学习每个考点的深入程度。你可以参考考纲里列出的考点中的所放置的动词来判断。例如,“ describe (描述)”相比较 “troubleshoot (排错)” 所需的学习深度就更低。 同样的,你必须自己来判断对于每个考点需要掌握的深度。

 

一旦你确定了考点的优先级,您可能需要决定是以水平还是垂直的方式进行学习。是先泛泛学习所有考点再进行针对性的深入学习还是对每个考点进行不同深度的学习。

 

不管是哪种学习方式,你可能都会从被动的听课开始。对于大多数的考点,你还需要通过阅读,研究,关联各种不同的文档资源来主动的进行学习,并以获得对考点的实施,争辩,质疑和验证的能力作为主要目标(依赖思科文档!)。你可能会在处于被动的方式下开始使用听或看的模式去学习。不过放心,,你需要积极地学习阅读,研究,调查,相关文件的多个资料来源,并有能力去实现,任何考点的任何部分。

 

跟备考同伴一起学习也是一个不错的方法,在此过程中,你可以有效地进行自我评估,了解你学的正确的,不正确的或与同伴不同的。在帮助与被帮助的过程中,你可以学到同伴的经验。

 

动手实验,动手实验,再动手实验!

 

不管你使用哪种培训教材和学习方法,一旦你觉得对每个考点已经有所掌握,你就必须开始熟悉对相关解决方案的实施和排错。这些解决方案往往在一个网络拓扑中涵盖多个考点。

 

在这一点上,你的学习目标应该是提高实施和排错的速度和准确性。唯一的学习方法就是动手实验,动手实验,再动手实验!这就类似于学习乐器演奏。先学会独立的音符和和弦,然后结合在一起 进行练习,练习,练习,再练习直至你可以自如的进行演奏。

 

尝试并比较多个配置选项,注意去理解最佳实践,体验常犯的错误和症状,熟练使用故障排除工具和技术,这些工具和技术都可以在Cisco IOS软件或工作站内找到。不要仅限于对培训教材内容的学习。经常问自己“如果这件事发生了会怎样?” 如果生成树模式不同会怎样?如果IGP是OSPF或EIGRP?如果PE-CE protocol 是OSPF 或 BGP? 如果远程网点有2条internet线路,使用一个或2个gateway? 如果我调整 BGP MED 而不调整 prepending AS? 如果administrative rule禁止特定最佳traffic path? 如果2个PE's 有相同的router-id? 还有很多你可以想到的"如果"!

 

尝试探索设计和最佳实践文档,并从中总结常见问题并使用建议方案。特别注意避免拼写错误或遗漏复制-粘贴步骤。如果可能的话,使用可靠的验证方法以自动捕获这些小错误。请记住,“注意细节”和“时间管理”是考试中两个最恶毒的,隐含的考点!

并从错误身上,观察常见的问题,然后应用建议的解决方案。并特别注意如,某种脚本或,可以些小问题的。

 

你确定你还想获得CCIE认证吗?

 

现在,你应该知道要如何备考专家级实验考试。你可能要花几个月,甚至多有的空闲时间来实验网络拓扑并配置成千个连接终端的线路。你的手指会知道的Cisco IOS解析器心脏,你敲键盘就好像弹奏钢琴。您将能够迅速预见任何潜在的问题,并找到相应的解决方案,建议下一个步骤。

 

CCIE R&S V5.0认证并不是与所有网络职位相匹配。当然,你要根据你的兴趣来决定是否要获得认证。

 

在学习过程中,你可能会遇到阻碍或困难,让你想要延后或停止你的学习。Himawan Nugroho,持有3项CCIE和CCDE的网络工程师如是说:让我继续在困难中前行的动力便是我想要获得CCIE认证的原因。没有好或不好的原因,你只要诚实的回答自己“为什么要获得CCIE认证?” 只有真实的答案能提供足够强大的引擎令你能有持续足够长的时间去温习,通过考试。

 

通过考试将是你个人职业发展中的重要成果,然而获得CCIE#并不是终点。它只是终身的学习之旅的一步。你为备考付出越多的努力和精力,那么你将在职业发展中获得更多的价值和认可!

 

下一篇博客中,我们将仔细探讨考试规则和参加实验考试的相关策略。

 

感谢你的时间!

 

推荐学习资源

 

Other resources on Cisco.com:

Cisco Tools:

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中英对照:

 

In my last post, we began to explore some things to consider when starting to pursue the CCIE R&S certification. In summary, Part 1 discussed the large volume of exam curriculum topics and the associated challenges to effectively prepare for them at the required performance level – the expert-level – while taking into account the exam-centric rules.

 

Here in Part 2, I will share some thoughts about the mindset of successful candidates when preparing for the exam. The intent of this article is to discuss high-level recommendations that could apply to any candidate – rather than provide a list of specific preparation advice. I'd suggest that that kind of specific advice be discussed in the forums. Please share your feedback in the comments below.

 

 

Know what you don't know!

In my Cisco Live presentations, I’d usually repeat this short quote throughout the eight-hour technical seminar session, “Know what you don’t know”. The reason I did is simply: it greatly helped drive my own CCIE studies back in 2006 – 2008! I don’t know where it came from, but surely not originally from me.

 

If you’re pursuing any CCIE, you likely have some technical background and already understand some topics inside and out, requiring very little study. Referring to the chart below, on day 1 (when starting to study), the “what you know” green bucket already represents a small portion of the overall exam curriculum. There will also be some topics that you've heard of and you will have a rough idea how much you will need to study. This is represented with the red “What you know that you don’t know” bucket. And finally, there will likely be other topics that you have never heard of and have no idea of how much study will be required. This is the “what you don’t know you don’t know” blue bucket and covers the remainder of the curriculum.

 

 

Of course, the objective of studying and preparing for any exam is to maximize the green portion and to minimize the blue and red ones as much as possible. Should you target knowing 100% of the curriculum and see it all green on the D-day? Well yes of course, you should be willing to learn as much as possible and read all you can from as many different sources as possible on any topic that might appear on the exam!  But is this realistic to expect of a minimally qualified candidate? To acquire 100% knowledge of all exam topics? Most likely not! Besides, do you really expect an expert to know all bits and bytes of all protocols by heart, off the top of his/her head? Obviously not! In order to pass, you must achieve an overall passing score – so it is not necessary to ace it with 100% on all topics.

 

As was discussed in Part 1, an expert is not expected to know everything, but instead be able to efficiently implement solutions and quickly resolve issues using available resources. So it is perfectly fine to still see some blue and red portions in the above chart for a minimally qualified candidate on the exam’s D-day.

 

This is an important consideration when building your study plan and trying to quantify your study effort. You will first need to evaluate your current knowledge and try to identify these three buckets. This can usually be accomplished by simply flagging or placing each topic into one of the three buckets described above.

 

When studying, keep your attention on the topics that were marked for the red bucket (those topics that “you know you don’t know”). Your first learning objective should be to turn them into green as soon as possible, into the ‘what you know’ bucket. And as you move forward in your studies, topics that you had knew nothing about will naturally emerge and they will gradually move up in the other two buckets.

 

This self-assessment exercise, if done honestly and regularly, identifies areas of strengths and weaknesses and should evolve over time. Keeping it up to date will help you visualize the progress and see the results of your outstanding efforts.

 

Meet your new best friend: Cisco documentation!

While the CCIE R&S Exam Topics list is now more detailed and more structured than ever, it is not meant to be an exhaustive list and some topics not explicitly listed may still appear on the exam.

 

Furthermore, while working out your study plan, you will likely discover that there are countless protocol features, details or options that can be studied in greater detail as compared to what is covered in any training courseware.

 

Given all that, how deeply should you study each topic?

 

One critical thing to know when answering this question is this: Cisco documentation is available during the test as a source of ready information! Candidates can – and even should – rely on public documentation during the exam, though it is restricted to Cisco documentation. Candidates should not rely on it for all exam tasks because time is limited. But for tasks that require some unusual option or configuration alternative, candidates should know where to quickly find the information in a reliable document.

 

Studying and preparing using the documentation that is available to you during the exam is certainly one of the secrets to a successful exam. In this way you will build confidence for being able to find supporting documents quickly and feel ready to navigate the unknown, both during the exam and in your daily job.

 

Below are some links to Cisco documentation that is available from the candidate’s workstation during the lab exam:

 

Study plan? What’s that?

While building your study plan, you may want to add and track the following two metrics in order to maintain a structured study approach.

 

The first one is an indicator that prioritizes each topic on a scale of relative importance. While the new weighting factors for the exam topics list are helpful at the domain level, you will still need to make a plan for the sub-domain and task levels using your best judgment as they are not publicly disclosed.

 

The second metric describes the knowledge “depth” (or “cognitive level”) that you plan to reach when studying each topic. The action verb in the task level of the exam topics list is something that might help you here. For example, “describe” is likely a lower cognitive level as compared to “troubleshoot”. But again, you will have to make the decision on the depth level for each task.

 

Once you have a prioritized list of topics, you may want to decide whether to study items horizontally or vertically, i.e. learn multiple topics in a sub-domain at the same knowledge depth before going deeper - or learn each topic independently to the expected depth.

 

In either case, you might start by learning topics in a passive way by listening to or watching instructors. But rest assured that for most topics, you will need to actively learn by reading, researching, investigating, correlating multiple sources of documentation and have the objective of being able to implement, argue, question and verify any component of any topic (relying on Cisco documentation!).

 

Working with others throughout the process is also a good idea as it is a great way to efficiently do your self-assessment and figure out what you are doing correctly, incorrectly or just differently. In the process of helping and being helped, you’ll get the added benefit of learning from other peoples' experiences.

 

Practice, practice, practice!

Regardless of your training’s courseware and approach, once you feel comfortable with each topic individually, you will need to become very familiar with implementing and troubleshooting relevant solutions that combine multiple interdependent topics together in a single network topology.


At this point, the objective should be to improve your speed and accuracy when implementing and troubleshooting any topic. The only way to speed these up is to practice, practice and practice again! This is somehow similar to learning how to play a musical instrument. First learn the notes and chords individually, then mix it all up and practice, practice, practice and practice again until it flows as naturally as if it were an innate skillset!

 

Try and compare multiple configuration options, be aware of and understand best practices, experience common mistakes and symptoms and be proficient with the troubleshooting tools and techniques that are available within Cisco IOS Software or within your workstation. Do not limit your exploration to what the training courseware has prepared for you. Ask yourself “what if?” What if the spanning-tree mode was different? What if the IGP was OSPF or EIGRP? What if the PE-CE protocol was OSPF or BGP? What if this remote site had two redundant Internet links with one or two gateways? What if I tune the BGP MED instead of prepending AS? What if an administrative rule prohibited certain optimal traffic paths? What if both PE’s had the same router-id? And so on!

 

Try exploring design and best practices documents and deviate from them in order to observe common issues and then apply the recommended solution. And especially watch out for making small mistakes like typos or missing a copy-and-paste step. If possible, use some sort of scripting or reliable verification method that can automatically catch these minor issues. Remember that “attention to the details” and “time management” are the two most vicious, implicit metrics of the lab exam!

 

Which study material?

As discussed in Part 1 of this blog post, there are many options in the market for CCIE-level training. Most vendors are very experienced and offer great products for different learning preferences. Whether you like actively reading and doing things at your own pace or passively watching and listening to an instructor’s lectures, there are many options from which to choose. Maybe, using a combination of multiple sources and styles is the safest investment, but likely not the cheapest. Do keep in mind that there are many free options as well, such as public free websites (IETF, Wikipedia, etc), videos, tutorials, cheat sheets, blogs, forums, podcasts, and so on.

 

And you will definitely need to practice on some Cisco gear – routers and switches. So be sure to sort out the “logistics” around the practice lab equipment that you will use: i.e. personal or rented, local or remote, hardware or virtual.

 

Although I’m sure that you can figure out the best solution for you, I’d recommend taking a look at the Cisco Learning Labs, as they feature the exact same delivery infrastructure, engine and web-interface that is used in the actual lab exam. Though currently, their courseware is geared towards CCNA and CCNP, nothing prevents you from deviating from it and doing something completely different with the virtual devices.

 

Though not available today, a new product called “CCIE Lab Builder” will soon supplement the Cisco Learning Labs by allowing users to build their own network topologies from scratch, using up to twenty IOS devices (virtual routers and/or switches, running latest Cisco IOS Software releases), fire up the virtual devices on Cisco cloud, access their console via telnet and import/export topologies. All logistics around the devices and topologies maintenance is taken care of for you and all you’ll need to do is to focus on your studies!

 

I’m very excited about this new product, though the pricing and timelines are not yet known. As I see it, it’s like the Holy Grail for CCIE R&S students because it is a very flexible, powerful, official and supported tool that enables anyone to spin almost any network topologies and play with them instantly, without having to touch anything related to the wiring or logistics around the hardware. Last but not least, this tool features the exact same infrastructure (virtual devices, IOL and L2-IOL) and web-interface as the ones used in the actual lab exam, which is certainly a benefit. That being said, this “CCIE Lab Builder” is in no way a requirement to effectively prepare for the exam. Using hardware gear is certainly appropriate as well. If you have previously invested in a set of hardware equipment to prepare for the CCIE R&S v4.0 lab exam, then all that equipment is still relevant. The minimal upgrade would be to include a few additional devices that are capable of running Cisco IOS Software Release 15.0(1)SE or 15.3M&T.

 

Do you still want to do it? Are you sure?

By now, you should have some reasonable expectations of what it really takes to start preparing for an Expert-level lab exam. There will be months where you’ll spend all your free time building and playing with network topologies and configuring thousands of lines in terminals. Your fingers will know the Cisco IOS parser by heart, and you will play on the keyboard as if it were a piano. You will be able to rapidly anticipate any potential problem and find appropriate solutions or recommend next steps.

 

The CCIE R&S v5.0 certification is certainly not aligned to all networking professional roles. It is, of course, in your interest to make an informed decision at the start as to whether you should pursue it or not.

 

And there is a good chance that some very legitimate troublemaker will show up along the way and force you to defer or pause your studies. As three-time CCIE (as well as CCDE) certification holder Himawan Nugroho has indicated in presentations at Cisco Live, "The only thing that will keep you going in these difficult times is the personal and honest answer to the question: Why do I want to pursue CCIE?” There are no good or bad reasons, only true or false answers to oneself. Only the true answers are powerful enough engines to last long enough to pass the exam.

 

Though passing is certainly an outcome of an important personal and professional project, earning your CCIE number is by no means the end. It’s only a step in a larger, life-long learning journey. The more effort and energy you invest in legitimate and valid preparation, the more value and recognition you will get from it throughout your career!

 

In the next article, we’ll take a closer look into these exam-centric rules and related strategies to approach the lab exam.

 

Again, please do not hesitate to share your feedback in the comments below.

Thanks for your time!

 

Resources

For your reference, here is a list of some valuable Cisco resources that can be helpful when preparing and studying for CCIE R&S certification:

  

 

Other resources on Cisco.com:

Cisco forums and wiki:

Cisco Tools:

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